Chief Benjamin Nnamdi AZIKIWE, 19041996 (aged 91 years)

Name
Chief Benjamin Nnamdi /AZIKIWE/
Name prefix
Chief
Given names
Chief Benjamin Nnamdi
Surname
AZIKIWE
Note: The first president of independent Nigeria (1963–6…

The first president of independent Nigeria (1963–66) and prominent nationalist figure and a political leader.

Birth November 15, 1904 25
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
Arthur Balfour
from July 12, 1902 to December 5, 1905 (aged 1 year)

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
Henry Campbell-Bannerman
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Olympic Games
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27th President of the United States
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28th President of the United States
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The Great War from July 28, 1914 to November 11, 1918 (aged 13 years)

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
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from December 6, 1916 to October 23, 1922 (aged 17 years)

29th President of the United States
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March 4, 1921 (aged 16 years)

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
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from October 23, 1922 to May 22, 1923 (aged 18 years)

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
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from May 22, 1923 to January 22, 1924 (aged 19 years)

30th President of the United States
Calvin Coolidge
August 2, 1923 (aged 18 years)

31st President of the United States
Herbert Hoover
March 4, 1929 (aged 24 years)

Education
Master's degree in Religion
1930 (aged 25 years)
School or college: Lincoln University, Pennsylvania
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
Ramsey MacDonald
from January 22, 1924 to June 7, 1935 (aged 30 years)

32nd President of the United States
Franklin D Roosevelt
March 4, 1933 (aged 28 years)

Education
Master's degree in Anthropology
1934 (aged 29 years)
School or college: University of Pennsylvania
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
Stanley Baldwin
from June 7, 1935 to May 28, 1937 (aged 32 years)

Birth of a sonChukwuma Bamidele AZIKIWE
February 1940 (aged 35 years)

Note:

Chief Chukwuma Bamidele Azikiwe (February 1940 – 10 May 2015) was a Nigerian diplomat and political figure. He was the second Owelle-Osowa-Anya of Onitsha and the eldest son of President Nnamdi Azikiwe, the first holder of the chieftaincy

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
Neville Chamberlain
from May 28, 1937 to May 10, 1940 (aged 35 years)

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
Winston Churchill
from May 10, 1940 to July 26, 1945 (aged 40 years)

World War 2 from September 1, 1939 to September 2, 1945 (aged 40 years)

33rd President of the United States
Harry S Truman
April 12, 1945 (aged 40 years)

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
Clement Atlee
from July 26, 1945 to October 26, 1951 (aged 46 years)

National Health Service
Free healthcare for all
from July 5, 1948 (aged 43 years)

Olympic Games
Games of the XIV Olympiad
from July 29, 1948 to August 14, 1948 (aged 43 years)
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
Winston Churchill
from October 26, 1951 to April 6, 1955 (aged 50 years)

34th President of the United States
Dwight D Eisenhower
January 20, 1953 (aged 48 years)

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
Anthony Eden
from April 6, 1955 to January 10, 1957 (aged 52 years)

Birth of a daughterJayzik AZIKIWE
May 12, 1958 (aged 53 years)
Death of a fatherObed-Edom Chukwuemeka AZIKIWE
1958 (aged 53 years)

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
Harold Macmillan
from January 10, 1957 to October 19, 1963 (aged 58 years)

35th President of the United States
John F Kennedy
January 20, 1961 (aged 56 years)

Occupation
President
from 1963 to 1966 (aged 61 years)

Employer: Federal Republic of Nigeria
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
Alex Douglas-Home
from October 19, 1963 to October 16, 1964 (aged 59 years)

36th President of the United States
Lyndon B Johnson
November 22, 1963 (aged 59 years)

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
Harold Wilson
from October 16, 1964 to June 19, 1970 (aged 65 years)

37th President of the United States
Richard Nixon
January 20, 1969 (aged 64 years)

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Edward Heath
from June 19, 1970 to March 4, 1974 (aged 69 years)

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
Harold Wilson
from March 4, 1974 to April 5, 1976 (aged 71 years)

38th President of the United States
Gerald Ford
August 9, 1974 (aged 69 years)

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
James Callaghan
from April 5, 1976 to May 4, 1979 (aged 74 years)

39th President of the United States
Jimmy Carter
January 20, 1977 (aged 72 years)

Winter of Discontent
Mass industrial action, power cuts and a three-day working week.
from October 1978 to February 1979 (aged 74 years)
40th President of the United States
Ronald Reagan
January 20, 1981 (aged 76 years)

Death of a wifeFlora Azikiwe
1983 (aged 78 years)

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
Margaret Thatcher
from May 4, 1979 to November 28, 1990 (aged 86 years)

41st President of the United States
George H W Bush
January 20, 1989 (aged 84 years)

42nd President of the United States
Bill Clinton
January 20, 1993 (aged 88 years)

Death of a wifeUche EWAH
May 11, 1996 (aged 91 years)

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
John Major
from November 28, 1990 to May 2, 1997 (aged 92 years)

Death May 11, 1996 (aged 91 years)
Date of entry in original source: April 26, 2017
Quality of data: primary evidence
Date of entry in original source: August 5, 2020
Quality of data: primary evidence
Note: Born February 4, 1947, in Afikpo, Nigeria; daughter of Lawrence A. (a sergeant major of police) and Florence (a trader and homemaker; maiden name, Ugo) Ewah; married Nnamdi Azikiwe (a political leader; first indigenous president of Nigeria), 197 3 (died May 11, 1996); children: Molokwu Azubuike, Uwakwe Ukuta. Ethnicity: "Igbo." Education: University of Nigeria, B.A. (with honors), 1981, M.Ed. (curriculum studies), 1985, M.Ed. (sociology of education and women's studies), 1989, Ph.D., 19 92. Religion: Christian. Hobbies and other interests: Dancing, cooking, "listening to good music."
Nationality
Nigeria

Religion
Christianity

Family with parents
father
mother
himself
Azikiwe Nnamdi -
19041996
Birth: November 15, 1904 25Zungeru, Niger State, Nigeria
Education: Master's degree in Religion1930Pennsylvania, United States
Nationality: Nigeria
Occupation: Presidentfrom 1963 to 1966
Death: May 11, 1996Enugu State, Nigeria
sister
Cecilia Eziamaka AZIKIWE
Family with Uche EWAH
himself
Azikiwe Nnamdi -
19041996
Birth: November 15, 1904 25Zungeru, Niger State, Nigeria
Education: Master's degree in Religion1930Pennsylvania, United States
Nationality: Nigeria
Occupation: Presidentfrom 1963 to 1966
Death: May 11, 1996Enugu State, Nigeria
wife
19471996
Birth: February 4, 1947Afikpo, Afikpo North L.G.A, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
Education: B.A. (with honors)1981Nsukka, Nsukka L.G.A, Enugu State, Nigeria
Death: May 11, 1996
son
Uwakwe Ukuta AZIKIWE
son
Molokwu Azubuike AZIKIWE
Family with Flora Azikiwe
himself
Azikiwe Nnamdi -
19041996
Birth: November 15, 1904 25Zungeru, Niger State, Nigeria
Education: Master's degree in Religion1930Pennsylvania, United States
Nationality: Nigeria
Occupation: Presidentfrom 1963 to 1966
Death: May 11, 1996Enugu State, Nigeria
wife
son
Chukwuma Bamidele Azikiwe
19402015
Birth: February 1940 35 30
Death: May 10, 2015Onitsha, Onitsha North L.G.A, Anambra State, Nigeria
son
Chukwuemeka AZIKIWE
son
Nwachukwu AZIKIWE
daughter
Ngozi AZIKIWE
son
Molokwu AZIKIWE
son
Uwakwe AZIKIWE
daughter
Jayzik Azikiwe 1
19582008
Birth: May 12, 1958 53 48London, City of London, Greater London, England
Death: January 31, 2008Banjul, Gambia
Family with Ugoye Comfort Aneche
himself
Azikiwe Nnamdi -
19041996
Birth: November 15, 1904 25Zungeru, Niger State, Nigeria
Education: Master's degree in Religion1930Pennsylvania, United States
Nationality: Nigeria
Occupation: Presidentfrom 1963 to 1966
Death: May 11, 1996Enugu State, Nigeria
wife
daughter
Chiebonam AZIKIWE
son
Nwamalubia AZIKIWE
son
Okechukwu AZIKIWE
NameMy Odyddey, My Genealogy and Nativity
DeathEncyclopedia.com
Date of entry in original source: April 26, 2017
Quality of data: primary evidence
DeathWorld Libraries
Date of entry in original source: August 5, 2020
Quality of data: primary evidence
SourceMy Odyddey, My Genealogy and Nativity
Date of entry in original source: August 6, 2020
Quality of data: primary evidence
Note: Nnamdi Azikiwe: My Genealogy and Nativity

Nnamdi Azikiwe: My Genealogy and Nativity
"Thus, in tracing my paternal lineage, I could say that both parents of my father are direct descendants of Eze Chima. As for me, I can trace my paternal ancestry in this wise: I am the first son of Chukwuemeka, who was the third child and first son of Azikiwe, who was the second son of Molokwu, who was the third son of Ozomaocha, who was the second son of Inosi Onira, who was the fourth son of Dei, the second son of Eze Chima, the founder of Onitsha." SOURCE - Nnamdi A zikiwe: My Odyssey, Chapter I (Spectrum Books, 1970) "My Genealogy and Nativity" p4 "I can trace my maternal ancestry thus: I am the first son of Nwanonaku Rachel Chinwe Ogbenyeanu (Aghadiuno)Azikiwe, who was third daughter of Aghadiuno Ajie, the fifth son of Onowu Agbani, first daughter of Obi Udokwu, the son who descended from five Kings of Onitsha. Five of these rulers of Onitsha were direct lineal descendants of Eze Chima, who led his warrior adventurers when they left Benin to establish the Onitsha city state in about 1748 AD." SOURCE - Nnamdi Azikiwe: My Odyssey, Chapter I (Spectrum Books, 1970) "My Genealogy and Nativity" p5 "One day I asked her (grandmother) the meaning of the word 'Onitsha'. She explained that it had historical significance. The terminology meant one who despised another. It is a contraction of two words, Onini to despise, and Ncha meaning others. So that the two words when joined together mean one who despises others. Then I asked her why we despised others. She patted me on the back and told me that it was due to our aristocratic background and tradition. I insisted that she should explain to me the basis of this supercilious social attitude. She told me that we despised others because we descended from the Royal House of Benin and so regarded ourselves as the superiors of other tribes who had no royal blood in their veins....." "I continued to belabor my grandmother to tell me more of the history and origins of the Onitsha people. She narrated that many many years ago, there lived at Idu (Benin) a great Oba who had many children. Due to a power struggle regarding the right of precedence among princes of the blood and other altercations, there was a civil war in Benin. One day, the supporters of one of the princes insulted and assaulted Queen Asije, the mother of of the Oba of Benin, who was accused of having trespassed on their farmland. Enraged at this evidence of indiscipline and lawlessness, the Oba ordered his war chief and brother, Gbunwala Asije to apprehend and punish the insurgents. In the attempt to penalise them, Chima, the ultimate founder of the Onitsha city-state, a prince of the blood in his own right, led the recalcitrants against his Uncle, Gbunwala. This intensified the civil war which rent the kingdom of Benin in two and led to the founding of Onitsha Ado N'Idu....... ..." "As the great trek from Benin progressed, some did not have the stout heart of the pioneer-warrior, and decided to settle at different places, known today as Onitsha -Ugbo, Onitsha-Olona, Onitsha-Mili, Obior, Issele Ukwu, Ossomari, Aboh, etc..." SOURCE - Nnamdi Azikiwe: My Odyssey, Chapter I (Spectrum Books, 1970) "My Genealogy and Nativity"

Name

The first president of independent Nigeria (1963–66) and prominent nationalist figure and a political leader.

Death

Born February 4, 1947, in Afikpo, Nigeria; daughter of Lawrence A. (a sergeant major of police) and Florence (a trader and homemaker; maiden name, Ugo) Ewah; married Nnamdi Azikiwe (a political leader; first indigenous president of Nigeria), 197 3 (died May 11, 1996); children: Molokwu Azubuike, Uwakwe Ukuta. Ethnicity: "Igbo." Education: University of Nigeria, B.A. (with honors), 1981, M.Ed. (curriculum studies), 1985, M.Ed. (sociology of education and women's studies), 1989, Ph.D., 19 92. Religion: Christian. Hobbies and other interests: Dancing, cooking, "listening to good music."

Note

Chief Dr. NNAMDI AZIKIWE

Chief Benjamin Nnamdi Azikiwe, PC, PhD (16 November 1904 – 11 May 1996), usually referred to as Nnamdi Azikiwe or Zik, was a prominent Nigerian nationalist and statesman who served as the first President of Nigeria from 1963 to 1966, holding the presidency throughout the Nigerian First Republic. He is popularly considered a driving force behind the nation's independence and came to be known as the "father of Nigerian Nationalism". Born to Igbo parents in Zungeru, present-day Niger State, Azikiwe learned to speak Hausa, the main indigenous language of the Northern Region at an early age. He later lived in Onitsha, his parental homeland where he was raised by his aunt and grandmother and learned the Igbo language. A sojourn in Lagos exposed him to the Yoruba language and he was in college, he had been exposed to different Nigerian cultures. Motivated to get a university education, he travelled to the U.S. and attended various colleges including storey College, Columbia University, the University of Pennsylvania and Howardreturning to Africa in 1934 to start work as a journalist in the Gold Coast. British West Africa, Azikiwe was an important advocate of Nigerian and African nationalism, first as a journalist and later as a political leader.

Biography:

Azikiwe was born on 16 November 1904, in Zungeru, Northern Nigeria. Nnamdi means "My father is alive" in the Igbo language. His parents were Igbo; his father Obed-Edom Chukwuemeka Azikiwe[5] (1879–1958), an Onitsha-indigene and clerk in the British Administration of Nigeria [6] who travelled extensively because of the nature of his job. Zik's mother was Rachel Chinwe Azikiwe sometimes called Nwanonaku[5][7] whose family was descended from a royal house in Onitsha; her paternal great grandfather was Obi Anazenwu.[7] Azikiwe had one sibling, a sister named Cecilia Eziamaka Arinze.[7] Growing up as a young boy in northern Nigeria, Azikiwe spoke Hausa, the language of the region, however, his father apprehensive of his child's fluency in Hausa and not Igbo sent him to Onitsha in 1912 to live with his paternal grandmother and aunt in order to learn the Igbo language and culture.[8]In Onitsha, he attended Holy Trinity School, a Roman Catholic Mission school and then Christ Church School, an Anglican primary school.

In 1914, his father was working in Lagos and when Azikiwe was bitten by a dog, his father worried about Zik's health asked him to come to Lagos so as to heal and also attend school in the was to seek an appropriate appointment in Nigeria that was commensurate with his education but after several applications including a teaching job at King's College and getting no positive response, he took an offer from Ghanaian businessman Alfred Ocansey to become the founding editor African Morning Post, a daily newspaper in Accra, Ghana. Zik was given a free hand to run the newspaper and recruited many of the pioneer staff. Azikiwe wrote a column for the paper tagged Inside Stuff by Zik, a platform which he used for radical nationalistic and black pride preachment but generated alarm within colonial circles.

As an editor, he promoted a pro-African nationalist agenda. Smertin has described his writing there: "In his passionately denunciatory articles and public statements, he censured the existing colonial order: the restrictions on the Africans' right to express their opinions, and racial discrimination. He also criticised those Africans who belonged to the "elite" of colonial society and favoured retaining the existing order, as they regarded it as the basis of their well being." It was during his period in Accra that he advanced his idea of New Africa, a black pride philosophy that was expanded in his published book, Renascent Africa. New Africa is a state where Africans will be divorced from ethnic affiliations and traditional authorities and transformed by five philosophical pillars of spiritual balance, social regeneration, economic determinism, mental emancipation and national Risorgimento. In the Gold coast, Azikiwe did not shy away from local politics and the paper supported the local Mambii party.

As a result of publishing an article on 15 May 1936, entitled "Has the African a God?" written by I. T. A. Wallace-Johnson, he was brought to trial on charges of sedition. Although he was found guilty of the charges and sentenced to six months in prison, he was acquitted on appeal. He returned to Lagos, Nigeria in 1937 and started the West African Pilot, a newspaper he used to promote Nigerian nationalism. Along with the Pilot, he started a string of newspapers under the Zik Group of Newspapers in politically and economically important cities across the country. The flagship newspaper of the group was West African Pilot which used Dante Alighieri's "Show the light and the people will find the way as motto." The others papers in the group included The Southern Nigeria Defender from Warri and later Ibadan, Eastern Guardian founded in 1940 TRIVIA: Nnamdi Azikiwe and Kwame Nkrumah, first Presidents ofNigeria and Ghana respectively, were educated at the same tertiary institutions: Lincoln University and the Ivy LeagueUniversity of Pennsylvania. Both Azikiwe and Nkrumah were members of the Phi Beta Sigmafraternity. His daughter, Jayzik Azikiwe (1958-2008), gained "silent notoriety" as the anonymous but central and subject "Roller Girl" inDire Straits' memorable 1980 music video, Skateaway. WORKS: Zik (1961) My Odyssey: An Autobiography(1971) Renascent Africa (1973) Liberia in World Politics (1931) One Hundred Quotable Quotes and Poems of the Rt. Hon. Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe (1966). ISBN 978-2736-09-0 Political Blueprint for Nigeria(1943) Economic Reconstruction of Nigeria (1943) Zik: A Selection of the Speeches of Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe (1961) Assassination Story: True or False?(1946) Before Us Lies the Open Grave(1947) The Future of Pan-Africanism(1961) The Realities of African Unity(1965) Origins of the Nigerian Civil War(1969) I Believe in One Nigeria (1969) Peace Proposals for Ending the Nigerian Civil War (1969) Dialogue on a New Capital for Nigeria (1974) Creation of More States in Nigeria, A Political Analysis (1974) Democracy with Military Vigilance(1974) Reorientation of Nigerian Ideologies: lecture on 9 December 1976, on the eve of the launching of the UNN Endowment Fund(1976) Our Struggle for Freedom; Onitsha Market Crisis (1976) Let Us Forgive Our Children. An appeal to the leaders and people of Onitsha during the market crisis(1976) A Collection of Poems (1977) Civil War Soliloquies: More Collection of Poems (1977) Themes in African Social and Political Thought (1978) Restoration of Nigerian Democracy(1978) Matchless Past Performance: My Reply to Chief Awolowo's Challenge (1979) A Matter of Conscience (1979) Ideology for Nigeria: Capitalism, Socialism or Welfarism? (1980) Breach of Trust by the NPN (1983) History Will Vindicate The Just(1983) Notable Quotes: ∆ "There is plenty of room at the top because very few people care to travel beyond the average route. And so most of us seem satisfied to remain within the confines of mediocrity" — from My Odyssey, No. 5. ∆ "My stiffest earthly assignment is ended and my major life's work is done. My country is now free and I have been honoured to be its first indigenous head of state. What more could one desire in life?" — talking about Nigeria's Independence on 1 October 1960.

SPORTS: Azikiwe was actively involved in sports at every stage of his life, and he was successful in many of the events that he participated in. They include Welterweight Boxing Champion Storer College (1925–27); High Jump champion, Howard University Inter-Scholastic Games (1926); Gold Medalist in Cross Country, Storer College (1927); Back-stroke Swimming Champion and No. 3 swimmer in Freestyle Relay team, Howard University (1928); Captain, Lincoln University Soccer Team (1930); Winner Two Miles Run, Central Inter-Collegiate Athletic Association Championships at Hampton Institute Virginia (1931); Bronze Medalist, Richmond Cross Country Marathon (1931); Gold Medalist in the 1,000 yard run, One Mile Run and Three Mile Run, Catedonian Games in Brooklyn, NY (1932); Silver Trophy winner in the Half Mile race, and Silver Cup winner in the One Mile Race, Democratic Field Day Championships, New Haven, Connecticut (1933); Runner-up (with G. K. Dorgu) at the Lagos Tennis Men's Double Championships (Division B 1938); anchor man for the ZAC team which won the 50 yards Freestyle Relay at the Lagos Swimming Championships (1939). He won letters in athletics (Lincoln University) and cross country (Storer College and Lincoln University), swimming (Howard University), and football (soccer) (Lincoln University); entered to compete in the Half-Mile Race and One-Mile run at the British Empire Games to represent Nigeria, but was rejected by the A.A.A. of Great Britain on technical grounds (he dropped his English Christian name, "Benjamin"); and founded (with M. R. B. Ottun) of the Zik's Athletic Club to promote athletics, boxing, cricket, football, swimming and tennis in Nigeria.

POLITICS: During his lifetime, he held several political posts, especially in Nigeria. They include Executive Committee Member of Mambili Party, Accra (1935–37); General Secretary of National Council of Nigerian and the Cameroons (1944–45); President of the NCNC (1946–60); Vice-President of the Nigerian National Democratic Party (1947–60); Member for Lagos in the Legislative Council of Nigeria (1947–51); Member for Lagos and Leader of the Opposition in the Western House of Assembly (1952–53) Member forOnitsha in the Eastern House of Assembly (1954–60); Minister of Internal Affairs (Jan.–September1954); Minister of Internal Affairs, Eastern Region (1954); Member of His Excellency Privy Council, Eastern Nigeria (1954–59); Primer of Eastern Nigeria (1954–59); President of the Senate of the ....and the West African Students' Union to raise awareness about its proposals for amendments to the 1922 constitution. Included in NCNC's proposals was consultation with Africans about changes in Nigerian constitution, more power provided to the regional House of Assemblies and limiting the powers of the central Legislative Council to matters affecting defense, currency and foreign affairs. The delegation submitted its proposals to the colonial secretary but little was done to make changes to Richard's proposals. The Richards Constitution was allowed to take effect on 1947 and Azikiwe contested for one of the Lagos seats to stall the implementation of the new constitution. 1950-1953: Under the Richards constitution, Azikiwe was elected to Legislative Council of Nigeria in a Lagos municipal election under the banner of the National Democratic Party, a subsidiary of NCNC. However, he and the party's representative did not attend the first session of the council and agitation for changes to the Richard's Constitution led to the Macpherson Constitution. A modified constitution, the Macpherson Constitution took effect in 1951 and called for Nigerian elections to the regional House of Assembly, like the Richards Constitution, Azikiwe opposed the new changes but he chose to contest with the desire of being selected as a House of Representatives member which will give him a chance to make changes to the constitution. Staggered elections were held Nigeria from August to December, 1951. In the Western region were Azikiwe contested, two parties were dominant, Azikiwe's NCNC and the Acton Group. The regional elections to the Western Regional Assembly was held in September and December 1951 because the constitution only allowed for anelectoral college to choose members of the national legislature, the chance of an Action Group majority in the house could prevent Azikiwe from going to the House of Representatives. Azikiwe won a regional assembly seat from Lagos but the opposition party claimed majority victory in the House of Assembly and Azikiwe was denied the opportunity to represent Lagos in the Federal House of Representatives. In 1951, he became the leader of the Opposition to the government ofObafemi Awolowo in the Western Region's House of Assembly. The choice of not selecting Azikiwe to the national assembly precipitated a series of chaos in the West An internal agreement by elected NCNC members from Lagos to step down for Azikiwe in the inevitability that.

LEGACY: Places named after Azikiwe include Azikiwe-Nkrumah Hall, the oldest building on Lincoln University's campus, the Nnamdi Azikiwe International Airport in Abuja, the Nnamdi Azikiwe Stadium in Enugu, the Nnamdi Azikiwe University in Awka, Anambra State, Nnamdi Azikiwe Press Centre, Dodan Barracks, Obalende, Ikoyi, Lagos. Azikiwe Avenue, in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. His portrait adorns Nigeria's five hundred naira currency. ACHIEVEMENTS: He was inducted into the prestigious Agbalanze society of Onitsha as Nnanyelugo in 1946, a customary recognition for Onitsha men of significant accomplishment. Then, in 1962, he became a second-rank red cap chieftain or Ndichie Okwa as the Oziziani Obi. In 1972, he was installed as the Owelle-Osowa-Anya of Onitsha, making him a first-rank, hereditary red cap nobleman or Ndichie Ume. In 1960, He established the University of Nigeria, Nsukka and Queen Elizabeth II appointed him to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom. He was conferred with the highest national honour of Grand Commander of the Federal Republic (GCFR) by the Federal Republic of Nigeria, in 1980. He has received fourteen honorary degrees from Nigerian, American and Liberian universities, which include Lincoln University, Storer College, Howard University, Michigan State University,University of Nigeria, Nsukka, University of Lagos, Ahmadu Bello University,University of Ibadan, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, and University of Liberia.

that Azikiwe will not be nominated broke down. Azikiwe blamed the constitution and wanted changes to be made. The NCNC which dominated the Eastern region also followed Azikiwe's views and was committed to see the constitution be amended. In 1952, he moved to the Eastern Region, and the NCNC dominated regional assembly made proposals to accommodate him. The regional and central ministers of the party were asked to resign for a cabinet reshuffle but majority of the ministers ignored the resignation call The regional assembly then passed a vote of no confidence on the ministers and any appropriation bill sent to the ministry was rejected. This created an impasse in the region and the Lt. Gov dissolved the regional house. A new election returned Azikiwe as a member of the Eastern Assembly. He was selected to the position of Chief Minister and in 1954 became Premier of Nigeria's Eastern Region when it was made a Federating unit. PREMIER: President: On 16 November 1960, he became theGovernor General, with Abubakar Tafawa Balewa as Prime Minister. On the same day became the first Nigerian named to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom. With the proclamation of a republic in 1963, he became the firstPresident of Nigeria. In both posts, Azikiwe's role was largely ceremonial. Azikiwe and his civilian colleagues were removed from power in the military coup of 15 January 1966. He was the most prominent politician to escape the spate of assassinations following the coup. During the Biafran (1967–1970) war of secession, Azikiwe became a spokesman for the nascent republic and an adviser to its leader Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu. He switched allegiance back to Nigeria during the war and publicly appealed to Ojukwu to end the war in pamphlets and interviews published at the time. Writing on his politics, the New York Times note that, "Throughout his life, Dr. Azikiwe's alliance with northerners put him at odds with Obafemi Awolowo, a socialist-inclined leader of the Yoruba, the country's other important southern group.″ After the war, he served as Chancellor of University of Lagos from 1972 to 1976. He joined the Nigerian People's Party in 1978, making unsuccessful bids for the presidency in 1979 and again in 1983. He left politics involuntarily after the military coup on 31 December 1983. He died on 11 May 1996, at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, in Enugu, Enugu State, after a protracted illness. He was buried in his native Onitsha.

and the West African Students' Union to raise awareness about its proposals for amendments to the 1922 constitution. Included in NCNC's proposals was consultation with Africans about changes in Nigerian constitution, more power provided to the regional House of Assemblies and limiting the powers of the central Legislative Council to matters affecting defense, currency and foreign affairs. The delegation submitted its proposals to the colonial secretary but little was done to make changes to Richard's proposals. The Richards Constitution was allowed to take effect on 1947 and Azikiwe contested for one of the Lagos seats to stall the implementation of the new constitution. 1950-1953: Under the Richards constitution, Azikiwe was elected to Legislative Council of Nigeria in a Lagos municipal election under the banner of the National Democratic Party, a subsidiary of NCNC. However, he and the party's representative did not attend the first session of the council and agitation for changes to the Richard's Constitution led to the Macpherson Constitution. A modified constitution, the Macpherson Constitution took effect in 1951 and called for Nigerian elections to the regional House of Assembly, like the Richards Constitution, Azikiwe opposed the new changes but he chose to contest with the desire of being selected as a House of Representatives member which will give him a chance to make changes to the constitution. Staggered elections were held Nigeria from August to December, 1951. In the Western region were Azikiwe contested, two parties were dominant, Azikiwe's NCNC and the Acton Group. The regional elections to the Western Regional Assembly was held in September and December 1951 because the constitution only allowed for anelectoral college to choose members of the national legislature, the chance of an Action Group majority in the house could prevent Azikiwe from going to the House of Representatives. Azikiwe won a regional assembly seat from Lagos but the opposition party claimed majority victory in the House of Assembly and Azikiwe was denied the opportunity to represent Lagos in the Federal House of Representatives. In 1951, he became the leader of the Opposition to the government ofObafemi Awolowo in the Western Region's House of Assembly. The choice of not selecting Azikiwe to the national assembly precipitated a series of chaos in the West An internal agreement by elected NCNC members from Lagos to step down for Azikiwe in the inevitability that..

and published in Port Harcourt, and Nigerian Spokesman at Onitsha. In 1944, the group acquired Duse Mohamed's the Comet. Zik's newspaper venture was both a business and a political tool. To succeed as a business, the Pilot gave less attention to advertising and focused more on its circulation largely because expatriate firms dominated the Nigerian economy. Many of Zik's newspapers placed emphasis on sensationalism and human interest stories; the Pilot introduced a women's section and introduced coverage of sports and increasing its Nigerian content against main competitor, theDaily Times expatriate and foreign news service dominated stories. The pilot started with an initial run of 6,000 copies daily and at its peak in 1950, it was printing over 20,000 copies. During the paper's run, Zik established a few other business ventures such as African Continental Bank and Penny restaurant and used his newspapers as a medium to advertise these ventures. Prior to World War II, the West African Pilot was not overtly radical but trying to build up a readership base, the paper's politics focused on injustice to Africans, criticism of colonial administration and supported many of the ideas of the educated elites in Lagos. However, by 1940, a gradual change occurred, like the African Morning Post, Zik started a column, Inside Stuff which was sometimes used to arouse political consciousness and in the Pilot's editorials, opinions were written for independence in Africa especially after the rise of the Indian independence movement. Though, it supported Great Britain in World War II, the Pilot was critical of war policies such as price controls and wage ceilings. In 1943, when the British Council sponsored 8 West African editors including Azikiwe. Azikiwe and six other editors used the opportunity to raise awareness about political independence. The journalists signed a memorandum calling for gradual socio-political reforms that will include abrogation of the crown colonysystem, installing representative system in regions and granting independence to British West African colonies by 1958 or 1960. However, the memorandum was ignored by the colonial office and the indifference furthered Zik's militancy. Nnamdi Azikiwe has had a controlling interest in over 12 different daily, African-run, newspapers in his lifetime in entrepreneurship. From his inception, being a founding editor and columnist on the African Morning Post in 1934, his articles of African nationalism,

feelings he later overcame. Azikiwe participated in Storer's athletics and cross-country teams before he transferred to Howard University, Washington DC, He then enrolled and graduated from Lincoln University, Pennsylvania, in 1930, obtaining a master's degree in Religion from Lincoln University in 1932 and another master's degree in Anthropology from University of Pennsylvania in 1934. Azikiwe became a graduate student instructor in the history and political science department at Lincoln creating an African history course. He was a candidate for a doctorate degree from Columbia before returning to Nigeria in 1934. His main doctorate research was Liberia in world politics and the research paper was published by A.H. Stockwell in 1934. During the time he was in America, Azikiwe was a columnist for the Baltimore Afro-American, Philadelphia Tribune and the Associated Negro Press. He was influenced by the ideals of the African American press, Garveyism and Pan-Africanism while writing for those papers. Newspaper career "Personally, I believe the European has a god in whom he believes and whom he is representing in his churches all over Africa. He believes in the god whose name is spelt Deceit. He believes in the god whose law is "Ye strong, you must weaken the weak. Ye 'civilised' Europeans, you must 'civilise' the 'barbarous' Africans with machine guns. Ye 'Christian' Europeans, you must 'Christianise' the 'pagan' Africans with bombs, poison gases, etc."" —African Morning Post, "snippet from the editorial that led to sedition charge", 1897 Azikiwe applied to become a foreign service official for Liberia but was rejected because he was not a native of Liberia. By 1934, when he returned to Lagos, he was already well known and a viewed as a public figure among some members of the Lagos and Igbo community. On his return, he was welcomed by a multitude of people, a sign that his writings in America had reached Nigeria. In Nigeria, his initial goal...

city. Two years later, his father was posted out of Lagos to Kaduna and Azikiwe briefly lived with a relative who was married to a Muslim from Sierra Leone. He was back in Onitsha by 1918 and finished his elementary education at CMS Central School where he also served as a pupil-teacher supporting his mother with some of his earnings. In 1920, his father was posted back to Southern Nigeria in the Southeastern city of Calabar. Zik joined his father in Calabar and started his secondary school at Hope Waddell Training College. In Calabar, he was introduced to the teachings of Marcus Garvey, Garveyism later an important part in his nationalistic rhetoric. After Hope Waddell, Calabar, Azikwe transferred to Methodist Boys High School Lagos. There he was friends with classmates from old Lagos families such as George Shyngle, Francis Cole and Ade Williams, the son of Akarigbo Remo, connections that served in later in Lagos. While at Methodist, he listened to a lecture delivered by James Aggrey, an educationist who believed that nothing but the best was good for Africa. Aggrey also believed Africans should get collegiate education abroad and come home to effect change. After the lecture, Aggrey gave the young Zik a list of schools accepting black students in America. After completing his secondary education, Zik applied to the colonial service and was accepted as a clerk in the treasury department. His entry to colonial service also made him face the racial bias within the colnial government. Determined to travel abroad to study, he applied to various universities in the U.S and received admission from Storer College, whose president responded that they will like to have him if he can find a way to America. To reach America, he contacted a seaman and made a deal with him to become a stowaway. However, one of his friends on the ship fell sick and they were advised to disembark in Sekondi. In Ghana Zik got employment as a police officer. While working in Ghana, his mother visited him and asked him to return to Nigeria, Zik reluctantly headed his mother request. When he arrived Nigeria, his father was ready to sponsor his trip to U.S, and Zik 300 pounds to travel to U.S. Azikiwe first attended Storer College, a two-year preparatory school, in Harpers Ferry, West Virginia. In U.S he took to doing various odd jobs to support his tuition and living expenses. He initially struggled working without a major sponsorship and also feeling lonesome and depressed, Federation (January–November 1960); Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of Nigeria (1960–63); President of the Republic of Nigeria (1963–1966); and Chairman and Presidential candidate of the Nigeria People's Party (1978–83). Professional World: He made a name for himself in the professional world. The many posts he held included: Third-class Clerk, Treasury Department, Lagos (1921–24); Recruit, Gold Coast Police Force (July–September 1924); Solicitor Clerk to the late Mr. Justice Graham Paul at Calabar (January – August 1925); Instructor in Political Science, Lincoln University (1931–34); University Correspondent for the Baltimore Afro-American (1928–34); General and Sports Correspondent for the Philadelphia Tribune (1928–34); Editor-in Chief of the West African Pilot(1937–45); Correspondent for the Associated Negro Press (1944–47); Correspondent for Reuters (1944–46); Managing Director of Zik's Press Limited printers and publishers of the West African Pilot (Lagos), Eastern Guardian(Port Harcourt), Nigerian Spokesman(Onitsha), Southern Nigeria Defender(Ibadan), Daily Comet (Kano), andEastern Sentinel (Enugu); Managing Director of Comet Press Limited (1945–53); Chairman of West African Pilot Limited and the Associated Newspapers of Nigeria Limited and six other limited liability companies (1952–53); Chairman, Nigerian Real Estate Corporation Limited (1952–53). Societies and Organizations: He was a member of many organizations and societies, includingAnti-Slavery Society for the protection of Human Rights; Phi Beta Sigma fraternity (Mu Chapter); West African Students' Union; Onitsha Improvement Union; Zik's Athletic Club; Ekine Sekiapu Society of Buguma, Kalabari; St. John's Lodge of England; Royal Economic Society; Royal Anthropological Institute; British Association for the Advancement of Science; American Society of International Law; American Anthropological Association; American Political Science Association; American Ethnological Society; Amateur Athletic Association of Nigeria; Nigerian Swimming Association, Nigerian Boxing Board of Control; Nigerian Cricket Association; Ibo State Union; Nigerian Table Tennis Association; Nigeria Olympic Committee and British Empire and Commonwealth Games Association.

Upon his death, The New York Times comments that Nnamdi “towered over the affairs of Africa’s most populous nation, attaining the rare status of a truly national hero who came to be admired across the regional and ethnic lines dividing his country.” Quite the honor from one of the best publications of modern times. Political Career: Azikiwe became active in the Nigerian Youth Movement (NYM), the first genuinely nationalist organization in Nigeria. However, in 1941 he backedSamuel Akinsanya to be NYM candidate for a vacant seat in the Legislative Council, but the executive selectedErnest Ikoli instead. Azikiwe resigned from the NYM accusing the majority Yoruba leadership of discrimination against the Ijebu-Yoruba members, Ibos and some Ijebu members with him, thus splitting the NYM along ethnic lines. After a successful journalism enterprise, Azikiwe entered active politics, co-founding the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC) alongsideHerbert Macaulay in 1944. He became the secretary-general of the National Council in 1946. Allegations of an Assassination Plot and Zikist Movement: On July 8, 1945, as a result of Azikiwe's support of a general strike in June 1945 and caustic attacks against the colonial government further publications of the West African Pilot was suspended by the colonial government. Zik and his papers gave solid to the striking workers and its leader Michael Imoudu accusing the colonial government of exploiting the working class. In August 1945, the paper was allowed to continue publication. During the strike of 1945, Zik raised alarms about assassination plot against him by unknown individuals on behalf of the colonial government. The basis of the story was a wireless message intercepted by a Pilot reporter. After receiving the intercepted message, Zik reacted by fleeing to hide on Onitsha but not before making a public statement. In his absence, the Pilot wrote editorials to arouse sympathy for Zik and many Nigerians believed the assassination story. Zik's popularity increased during this period, new readers bought his newspapers to read about Zik and his politics. However, the allegations also had its Nigerian doubters and some believed it was made up by Zik to increase his profile. Those doubting the allegations were mostly Yoruba politicians from the Nigerian Youth Movement leading to rift between Azikiwe and some Yoruba politicians in NYM and creating a press war between Zik's Pilot and the Daily Service, .

the media outlet of NYM support. In 1946, a militant youth movement led by Osita Agwuna, Raji Abdalla, Kolawole Balogun, M.C.K. Ajuluchukwu and Abiodun Aloba was established to defend Azikiwe's life, his ideals of self-government and criticism from his political opponents. Inspired by Azikiwe's writings and Nwafor Orizu's Zikism philosophy members of the movement soon began to advocate for positive and militant actions to actualize self-government, calls for actions included strikes, study of military science courses by Nigerian students overseas and boycott of foreign goods. However, Azikiwe did not come out publicly to defend the actions of the movement and the movement was banned in 1951 after a failed attempt to kill a colonial secretary. Opposition to the Richards Constitution: In 1945, British governor, Arthur Richards presented proposals for a revision of the Clifford constitution of 1922, included in the proposal was an increase in the number of nominated African members to the Legislative Council. However, the new changes met opposition from nationalists such as Azikiwe. NCNC politicians opposed the unilateral decisions made by Richards and constitutional provision that allowed for only four elected African members while the rest were to be nominated candidates. The nominated African candidates were described as mostly loyal to the colonial government and would not aggressively seek self-government. Another basis of opposition was there was little input for the advancement of Africans into senior positions in the civil service. NCNC opposed Richards proposals and made preparations to argue its case to the new labour government in Britain. A tour of the country was embarked on to raise awareness about the party's concerns and to also raise money for the U.K. protest. During of one the tour, NCNC's president, Herbert Macaulay died and Azikiwe carried on with the leadership of the party. Azikiwe now the leader of NCNC also led the delegation to London, in preparation for the trip, he travelled to the U.S. to gain sympathy for the party's case and met a few individuals such as Mrs Roosevelt at Hyde Park and making a speech about the"emancipation of Nigeria from the political thralldom, economic insecurity and social disabilities". The U.K. delegation which included Azikiwe as others leaders had Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti, Zanna Dipcharima, Abubakar Olorunimbe, Adeleke Adedoyin and Nyong Essien visited the Fabian Colonial Bureau, the Labor Imperial Committee

black pride and empowering nature were at the dismay of many colonialist politicians, and the benefit of millions of marginalized Africans’. Furthermore, he would establish the West African Pilot in 1937 with the motto of “show the light and the people will find the way”. East African newspapers generally published in Swahili, excluding newsletters like the East African Standard. In West Africa, however, Nnamdi was revolutionizing the newspaper industry, showing how “journalism can be a successful business enterprise”. Moreover, by printing his West African Pilot newspapers, as an English-language based newspaper, with the similar African nationalist rhetoric that made him so renown, the newspaper line exploded. By 1950, the five leading African-run newspapers in the Eastern region, including Gold Coast, Nnamdi’s biggest rival the Nigerian Daily Times, and others, were out printed by the thousands, combined, in comparison to Nnamdi’s Pilot which sold over seventeen thousand copies daily. On July 8th, 1945, the Nigerian government banned the West African Pilot and the Daily Comet, another Nnamdi affiliated newsletter, for “misrepresenting facts about the general strike. This was acknowledged by Nnamdi, but he would not be silenced, continuing his perspective of the strike in his Port Harcourt newsletter, the Guardian. He would later lead a general strike of his own, in 1945, and later hold the premiership of East Nigeria (1954–59). By the 1960s, post-Nigeria’s independence, although the West African Pilot was circulated throughout the country, it was particularly strong in the east. Azikiwe, as well as his usual rhetoric, also took particular aim at groups that preached politics of exclusion. Azikiwe was often criticized by a section of the Yoruba’s for using his newspaper to suppress opposition to his views, since anyone who spoke outran the risk of being labelled an "Uncle Tom" or "imperialist stooge", ultimately destroying their reputation. Here is a list of most of Nnamdi Azikwe’s newsletters including ones from “Zik’s Press Limited”: The West African Pilot of Nigeria 1937, The Daily Comet taken over from Duse Mohammad in 1944, the African Morning Post column entitled “Inside Stuff” by Zik of Accra, Ghana, The Nigerian Spokesman in Warri, the Northern Advocate of Jos, The Eastern Nigerian Guardian of Port Harcourt, the Southern Defender of Warri, and The Sentinel of Enugu. Several of which are no more in circulation.